From the earliest recorded time, people have made personal ornaments from the beautiful rocks and crystals that they have found around them. In ancient cultures, some of these stones became very important to the people and were thought to have magical properties. The healing and beneficial attributes of gemstones are once again being investigated, and many people are convinced that they can help in these stressful times.
None of the following information should be used as a substitute for medical advice
Natural peacock shades with a pearly lustre.
Abalone are large edible marine molluscs; the thick inner layer of their shells is composed of nacre or mother-of-pearl, and in many species this is highly iridescent.
Agate - in general
A silica-based mineral, often found with a very fine grained form of quartz, found growing within volcanic lava bubbles known as 'nodules' or 'geodes'. It exists in many different varieties and colours, often patterned or 'banded' (from the concentric growth pattern of the crystals). Most are mined in Brazil, but its different varieties are found in almost every country. This gemstone is often dyed to produce very bright colour effects. An alternative birth stone for Aquarius.
It is thought to strengthen the body and mind, and also believed to generate courage. It may aid our ability to recognise the truth and accept our current circumstances. It is thought to promote energy and be very grounding
Agate - Blue Lace
A very fine grained form of quartz that is opaque banded shades of milky white and baby blue.
This gemstone is commonly found in South Africa and Namibia (some of the finest Blue Lace Agate in the world is produced by a narrow seam of gemstone found on the Ysterputs Farm in Namibia).
It is thought to banish fears and promote courage, calm and increase self-esteem. It is considered to be a stone for health and good fortune. It is believed to be associated with the throat chakra and closely linked to all things angelic
Agate - Botswana
Translucent banded shades of gentle pink and grey, sometimes with muted browns and apricot tones.
A very fine grained form of quartz that grows within volcanic lava bubbles known as 'geodes'. Named after the area in Africa where it is mined, it is often called the ‘sunset stone’.
All Agates are thought to strengthen and tone the body and mind; they are believed to be grounding yet also energising; they may help us to recognise the truth and accept situations and circumstances. Botswana Agate is believed to help with oxygenation of the body's systems and may encourage a connection to nature, trees and the plant kingdom
Agate - Pink Botswana
A very fine grained form of quartz that is opaque banded shades of grey, coffee and cream, with definite tints of soft pink.
Agate - Crazy Lace
A very fine grained form of quartz that is opaque shades of yellow, cream, brown, grey and black banding.
It is often dyed to produce brighter colour combinations.
Agate - Dragonscale
very fine grained form of quartz that is semi-translucent shades of black and
grey with distinctive 'scaley' markings. Available in glossy and matt (opaque)
finishes. Usually dyed and heat treated to produce brighter colour
Agate - Fire
A very fine grained form of quartz that is translucent shades of orange with pale 'scaley' markings.
Agate - Green Moss
Agate - Silver Lace
A very fine grained form of quartz that is opaque shades of black, grey and white
Pale shades of opaque sea green.
A type of feldspar, this gemstone is found in North and South America, India, Africa, Madagascar, Canada and Russia. The colour will often vary with location e.g. Peru tends to have quite bright teal coloured stones, whereas Russian and Brazilian Amazonite is a greener tone, often with white inclusions.
The 'thinker's stone'. It is thought to encourage creativity and attract success. It is believed to be uplifting. It is considered to be a soothing stone and helpful in maintaining optimum health, helping to alleviate worry and fear and dispel aggravation
Pale shades of opaque sea green with striking accents of black, charcoal and rich rusty brown.
This gemstone is also known as ‘Black Gold Amazonite’. A type of feldspar, it is found in North and South America, India, Africa, Madagascar, Canada and Russia. The colourful ‘inclusions’ are caused by the presence of Pyrite and Black Tourmaline.
The 'thinker's stone'. It is thought to encourage creativity and attract success. It is believed to be uplifting. It is considered to be a soothing stone and helpful in maintaining optimum health, helping to alleviate worry and fear and dispel aggravation
Translucent and opaque shades of yellow, gold, orange, green and brown.
Amber is pre-historic pine resin that has been fossilised - most of the world's amber is 30 to 90 million years old. This gemstone is often found on the beaches of Baltic countries, after heavy storms have disturbed the seabed where a large quantity of amber is found. It is also mined in Russia.
Traditionally used as a teething aid for babies, it is also believed to be beneficial for absentmindedness. It may help the body heal itself by turning negative energy into positive. It is thought to bring good luck to warriors and said to calm the nerves
Subtle shades of pale translucent purple.
This gemstone is a member of the quartz family. Material from in Uruguay and Zambia is highly prized. The birth stone for February and also for Aquarius. An alternative birth stone for Pisces. The traditional love token for Valentine's Day.
Amethyst is believed to be a stone for change. It is thought to promote psychic and spiritual awareness, intuition and creativity, inner peace and the imagination. It is often used for meditation. It is also believed to be helpful for insomnia, grief and high blood pressure, and to boost the immune system
Subtle shades of pale translucent purple and yellow.
This naturally occurring form of quartz is created when different oxidation rates cause both amethyst and citrine to form. It cannot be replicated and is a wholly natural phenomenon. Almost all Ametrine is mined in Bolivia.
Accordingly, Ametrine is thought to combine the powers of Amethyst and Citrine
Shades of vivid translucent turquoise blue/green.
From the Greek word 'to cheat' as this gemstone can easily be confused with other gems! Found in Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Scandinavia, Russia, Canada, Africa, and the USA. The clarity, colour and intensity of tone changes with location.
It is considered to have inspirational properties. Crystal healers believe it sees forward while retaining a connection to the past and aids communication. It is believed to be able to suppress hunger and raise the metabolic rate
Pale shades of translucent blue-green.
Aquamarine – a Latin word meaning water of the sea. This gemstone is a type of beryl found mainly in South America, notably Brazil, and the Indian sub-continent. The birth stone for March and also for Pisces.
Closely associated with the sea, it was believed to counteract evil and was carried by sailors as a talisman against drowning. It may help to calm the nerves and lift the spirits. It is thought to quicken the intelligence and lead to greater self-knowledge. It is believed to preserve innocence. It is thought to be good for sore throats, swollen glands and thyroid problems; it may help the body deal with allergies such as hay fever
Aventurine - Green
Translucent shades of cool green.
A member of the quartz family mostly mined in India. The characteristic glistening or shimmering effect is known as "aventurescence," which is the result of uniformly oriented, platy mineral inclusions within the rock matrix. An alternative birth stone for August. An alternative birth stone for Libra.
Thought to soothe and relax, acting as a general tonic. Supposed to bring good fortune and encourage creativity, independence and serenity. Also thought to be good for skin conditions, optical disorders and for reducing anxiety. Thought to bring adventure in love and sport
Aventurine - Red
Translucent shades of rich warm red.
A member of the quartz family mostly mined in Chile and Russia. The characteristic glistening or shimmering effect is known as "aventurescence," which is the result of uniformly oriented, platy mineral inclusions within the rock matrix.
This gemstone may help when looking at situations in detail, helping to magnify the aspects of importance.
It is believed to encourage self-reflection. It is thought to be useful when fasting, to reduce hunger
A family of beryllium aluminium silicate minerals that includes several important gemstone varieties.
Emerald, Aquamarine, Morganite, Heliodor (also called Golden Beryl) and Goshenite (clear ice white) are all members of the Beryl family. It is found in many places, notably Brazil, Afghanistan and the USA. Translucent samples (often called ‘gem quality’) are usually named as above, and the more opaque ‘included’ material is labelled and sold as Beryl
Beryl is thought to aid creativity, reduce tiredness, and increase intelligence. It has been used as a talisman stone for artists of all kinds, and is also believed to be a protective stone during travel. It is thought to help during disputes of all kinds
Dense opaque black.
A type of agate (a very fine grained form of quartz) without any patterning or banding.
This gemstone is an alternative birth stone for February and also Gemini.
It is thought to promote self-control and serenity. It may ease stress and encourage commitment and devotion to the wearer. It is also believed to reduce physical stress and help heart problems and ulcers
Opaque shades of dark green with red or orange speckles.
A form of chalcedony mostly found in India, although there is an outcrop deposit on the Isle of Rum, off Scotland. An alternative birth stone for March. Also known as Heliotrope.
This form of jasper is thought to cleanse and ground the physical body, and may help blood disorders.
It may increase courage and provide mental balance. It is thought to provide inner guidance, and revitalise friendships, relationships and all forms of love
shades of translucent pale blue, created when naturally clear topaz is heat
treated and irradiated to enhance and alter the colour. This gemstone is usually
available as three distinct colours types - Swiss Blue (intense), Sky Blue (the
lightest) and London Blue (dark blue/green). The birth stone for November and
also for Scorpio.
It is thought to encourage creativity, especially in writing. It may help us focus on life's path and increase alignment with our higher self. It is believed to encourage peacefulness, creativity and self-expression.
It is thought to soothe the emotions and may be a good detoxifying stone, regulating the digestive system. It is often used as a charm against fires and accidents
Translucent shades of red and orange.
This gemstone is a form of chalcedony coloured by impurities of iron oxide. Also known as Sard. Found in Brazil, Australia, Madagascar, Russia, South Africa, USA, Uruguay and India. It is often heat treated to enhance the colour. An alternative birth stone for July and also for Virgo.
It may improve alertness, concentration and energy levels. It is thought to connect us with our inner self, encouraging joy, sociability and warmth. It is believed to be anti-depressant and good for rheumatic pains and arthritis
Intense semi-translucent shades of rich purple and lavender, often found with opaque black markings.
This gemstone is named after the Chara River and found only in one location in Siberia, Russia.
Known as a ‘Stone of Transformation’, it is said to transform negative emotions, such as fear, obsession and anger, into positive feelings. It is thought to be a very spiritual stone believed to stimulate inner vision and encourage spiritual growth. It may help appreciation of the present moment and put things into perspective.
It may protect from nightmares and alleviate insomnia by encouraging deep sleep with powerful dreams.
It is believed to speed up the healing process
Opaque shades of blue-green.
Found in Israel, Chile, the USA and Cornwall, this gemstone is high in copper and often associated with other copper-rich minerals like Azurite and Malachite.
Chrysocolla is known as the ‘Stone of Communication’. It is believed to help release stress and anger, to balance the emotions, and allow truth and inner wisdom to be heard. It is thought to be a peaceful stone that encourages compassion.
It is also thought to encourage prosperity in business, and helps to link creativity to practical applications.
It may help with expressing feelings and verbal and artistic creativity when worn around the throat
Shades of both translucent and opaque apple green.
A member of the chalcedony family. Often called ‘Australian Jade’, it is an alternative birth stone for May.
It is thought to be calming and balancing, enhancing flexibility and dexterity. It may encourage generosity, wisdom and self-confidence. It is believed to lift the spirits, ease depression and aid fertility. It may ensure balance and perspective in business dealings and personal affairs
Pale translucent smoky yellow.
This gemstone is a member of the quartz family, and natural Citrine is very rare; most commercial material is Amethyst or Smokey Quartz which has been heat-treated to simulate the natural conditions that produce Citrine. Known as the ‘Sunshine’ gemstone, most gem quality material is mined in Brazil. An alternative birth stone for November.
Known as the ‘Merchant's Stone’, it is believed to assist in acquiring wealth, and also in maintaining it.
Carried in the pocket, it is thought to attract money and stop excessive outflow. It is thought to ease toxic conditions and help with diabetes. It is believed to control the emotions and prevent self-destructive tendencies. It may encourage us to be nice to ourselves
Traditionally ice-white, but also available in black, pink, champagne, cognac, canary, red and blue.
Some of these colours are achieved by heat treatment. Rough diamonds are also becoming increasingly popular. The birth stone for April and also for Aries.
A symbol of purity, it is thought to bring love and clarity into partnerships, bonding relationships. Diamond is a sign of commitment and fidelity. It may impart fearlessness and clear emotional and mental pain, reducing fear and bringing about new beginnings. It may stimulate creativity, inventiveness, imagination and ingenuity. It may bring clarity of mind and aid enlightenment. It is thought to purify and detoxify all of the body’s systems, rebalancing the metabolism and building up stamina
Opaque deep blue, often with paler blue shading and brown inclusions in opaque material.
Named after French palaeontologist M E Dumortier, this gemstone is found in Brazil, France, India, North America, Madagascar, Africa, Norway, Poland, Italy and Sri Lanka. Often translucent with good clarity in high quality stones.
It is believed to help control excitability and encourage patience. It is thought to help reduce stubborn traits and tendencies
Vibrant shades of 'included' and translucent green.
A type of beryl, the colour varies depending on the country of origin; high quality stones are found mainly in Africa and Colombia. The inclusions are referred to as the 'jardin' or 'garden'. The birth stone for May and also for Taurus.
It is thought to promote unity, friendship and domestic bliss, keeping partnerships in balance. It is thought to stimulate the heart chakra, having a healing effect on the emotions as well as the physical heart. It may ensure physical, emotional and mental equilibrium, bringing harmony to all areas of life. It is thought to strengthen memory and impart clarity of thought, inspiring a deep inner knowledge, promoting truth and discernment. It is thought to treat disorders of the heart, lungs, spine and muscular system and aid recovery after infectious illness
Subtle shades of translucent purple and green.
Also known as fluoro-spar. This mineral is highly fluorescent. Found in Germany, North and South America, Burma, France, Austria, Africa, Thailand and China. Deposits found in Derbyshire are known as Blue John.
It may absorb negative energies and open the body’s chakras. It is used by crystal healers to balance and focus energies; often used for meditation. It is thought to be good for physical and mental healing and may strengthen bone tissue
Opaque neutral shades of brown and cream with distinctive fossil markings.
Deep blackberry red.
Generally the name given to Pyrope and Almandine varieties of this gemstone. It is mainly found in the USA, Russia, Africa and Turkey; a very prestigious colour form is found in the Rajasthan area of India.
The birth stone for January and also for Capricorn.
It is thought to increase determination, energy, imagination and courage, and may attract love and compassion.
It is thought to help in dream and past-life recall. It is believed to protect against infection and purify the blood
Garnet - Green
Subtle shades of translucent yellow-green.
Also called grossular garnet. Found in Canada, Pakistan, Russia, Sri Lanka and Africa. Tsavorite Garnet is a bright grass-green variety discovered in the 1970s in the Tsavo National Park in Kenya; it rivals emerald for colour, however unlike emerald, is often inclusion free.
It is believed to encourage relaxation and inspire co-operation
Garnet – Hessonite
Smokey shades of translucent orange.
This gemstone is a brown-red variety of Grossular Garnet. Found mainly in Sri Lanka and India, it has also been found in Brazil and California. Also known as 'Cinnamon Stone' because of the colour tones found.
It is thought to eliminate feelings of guilt and inferiority
Garnet - Spessartite
Rich translucent burnt orange.
Also called Mandarin Garnet. Found in Australia, Burma, Brazil, China, Africa, Sri Lanka, and the USA.
It is thought to enhance analytical processes and suppress nightmares
Opaque metallic charcoal grey, with a high-gloss metallic mirror finish when polished; highly coloured versions are also now available. A form of iron oxide that can be red in colour in its raw state, this gemstone is a wide spread mineral, with huge deposits in the Lake District. Available in shiny, satin and matt finishes, electroplated 'coloured' Hematite is also available. Most commercial gemstone material is from Africa.
It is thought to be an anti-depressant and pain reliever. It is believed to strengthen the heart. It may promote confidence, bravery, optimism, personal charisma and self-esteem
Opaque white with delicate pale grey marbling.
Named after Henry How of Nova Scotia who first described it in 1868, this gemstone is very porous and easily dyed; it is often used as an imitation for Lapis Lazuli and Turquoise. It is found mainly in the USA.
It is thought to aid and deepen sleep, gently relieve stress, rage, tension and anxiety. It may encourage patience, gentleness and tact. It is believed to be good for bones, teeth, nursing mothers and for reducing muscle tension
Translucent shades of blue, violet and grey.
The name originates from the Greek word for ‘violet’. Also called 'Water Sapphire' as this gemstone is often found in rivers and streams. It is often called the ‘Viking’s Compass’ because it’s pleochroic nature could be used to determine the direction of the sun on overcast days. Traditionally found in India and Burma, it is also mined in Australia, Africa and the USA.
It is thought to encourage peace and simplicity, especially in family environments. It is often given as a talisman to bring travellers safely home. It is believed to act as a stimulus to all creative and artistic activities. It may help the subconscious to perceive the truth; it is known as a stone of discernment
This gemstone is found in two forms - Nephrite is usually shades of green, whereas the rarer form, Jadeite, is found in a wider range of colours, including green, lavender, red, white and black.
Found in Burma, China, Japan, North and South America, Kazakhstan, Russia, Australasia, Zimbabwe, Taiwan, New Zealand (where it is protected) and Poland. Much of the jade today is treated to improve its colour and appearance.
It is thought to attract good luck, protect from unfriendly spirits and encourage safe journeys. It may encourage wisdom and long life. It is believed to be good for the kidneys, bladder complaints and feminine problems.
It may foster courage, justice, modesty and clarity
Jasper - in general
A form of chalcedony that exists in many different forms and colours.
Found in Egypt, Australia, North and South America, India, Kazakhstan, Madagascar and Russia. There are many different varieties with a host of manes describing them. It is not unusual for Jaspers to contain 20% foreign materials. Sometimes it can grow with Agate and Opal and include fossilized material. The inclusion of these different materials, rocks and minerals means that many unusual patterns and pictures can be seen in the stones. It is an alternative birth stone for March.
Jasper is thought to be the ‘supreme nurturer’ as it is believed to support, bring balance and unify. When used by crystal healers it is believed to support the circulatory and digestive organs and to balance the body’s mineral content. Depending on the colour, this stone is thought to stimulate the sense of smell and the immune system, strengthen the liver and gall bladder, and promote general healing and tissue regeneration. Match the colour to the chakra for best effect. The darker colours are thought to be more grounding, but less helpful for healing
Jasper – Artistic
A form of chalcedony that exists in a range of natural muted opaque shades of grey and taupe, with intricate ‘brush-stroke’ markings and patterns.
This ‘dendritic’ gemstone is also known as Paintbrush Jasper.
Paintbrush Jasper is thought to be the Earth Mother speaking to her children; her story and lessons are held deep within the stone. It is believed to connect us with the earth and to encourage ecological awareness.
It is believed to absorb negativity and promote harmony, and to align the physical, mental, and emotional with the spiritual realms
Jasper - Black
A form of chalcedony that exists in opaque black, with a subtle glossy sheen.
Jasper – Bronzite
Opaque shades of brown, with a metallic shimmer.
A type of pyroxene, it is commonly found in igneous rocks and has been discovered in meteorites.
It is found all over the world, but notably in the USA, Austria, England, South Africa, India, Norway and Greenland
Known as the ‘Earth Shield’, Bronzite is thought to be grounding, protective and stabilising.
The perfect modern warrior’s stone, it is believed to boost self-confidence and to give us the courage to turn our wishes into plans, and those plans into action. It is thought to alleviate self-doubt, and restore harmony
Jasper - Cappuccino
A form of chalcedony that exists in opaque coffee and cream shades in wonderful swirling patterns.
Also known as Brown Zebra Jasper
Jasper – Dalmatian
A form of chalcedony that exists in opaque shades of cream, all with grey, black or brown.
Named because it looked like the coat of the Dalmatian dog, this gemstone is now mined largely in Mexico; the ‘spots’ are caused by Black Tourmaline and Dravite (also called Brown Tourmaline) crystals that form within the chalcedony.
It is thought to lessen disillusionment and help the wearer to see their strengths and weaknesses. It may encourage grounding, both with the earth and reality. It is thought to increase loyalty and be beneficial in long term relationships; it may also bring a sense of fun to life. It is believed to purify the blood, and protect from nightmares, depression and negative thinking
Jasper - Fancy
A form of chalcedony that exists in opaque shades of green, cream, beige and purple.
Also known as Indian Agate - it is mainly mined in India.
This gemstone is thought to act as an anti-depressant and ease worry. Jasper is always regarded as a stone that gives a sense of well-being. Fancy Jasper is thought to intensify and lighten that feeling and it is often referred to as ‘the party stone’. It is believed to be especially helpful for people whose male energies are extreme. It is thought to help people lighten up and enjoy themselves, but these subtle, blended colours make for a quiet kind of partying
Jasper - Galaxy
A form of chalcedony that exists in swirling opaque patterns of moss green over a deep green/black
This gemstone is also called Kambaba Jasper, and is mainly found in Africa.
It is thought to soothe the nerves and calm the mind. As with other Jaspers, it may be good for grounding as well as protection. It is believed to help in dietary stabilisation, assimilation of vitamins and minerals, as well as cleansing the body of toxins
Jasper - Impression
This gemstone is a form of chalcedony that exists in muted opaque shades of cream, grey and pale blue-green and is usually referred to as Variscite or Aqua Terra Jasper.
It is also dyed to produce bright, multi-coloured material with intricate patterning. It is found in the southwest USA, Bolivia, Australia and Germany, where it was first discovered in 1837.
It is believed to be soothing and calming for body and mind, and thought to provide emotional stability and self-confidence, leading to a greater sense of self-worth and self-love. It is said to encourage abundance, while at the same time reminding us to help one another
Jasper - Multi-colour Picasso
A form of chalcedony that exists in a natural range of muted opaque shades of sage green and russet, with hints of brown and cream, often with intricate markings and patterns.
A type of metamorphic limestone, this gemstone is also known as ‘Red Creek’ Jasper, named after the area in China where it is found. A subtle version of opaque shades of grey and black, with hints of brown and cream, is also available.
It is thought to attract like-minded people who become loyal and trusted friends, as well as help to renew old friendships that have been lost. It is believed to encourage the wearer to enjoy life, and encourage creativity
Jasper - Ocean
A form of chalcedony that exists in a wide range of opaque patterns that include shades of green, cream, pink and earth tones.
It is only found off the coast of Madagascar and can be mined or collected only at low tide. Often 'orbicular' where the patterns have formed in concentric rings and zones.
It is thought to be a very calming and soothing gemstone, as well as one of the most protective. It may encourage love of ourselves and of others, emotional healing and a connection to nature and all of the earth. It is thought to attract the Devics (nature's sprites or faerie kingdom), and it is thought to encourage the acceptance of responsibility and to increase patience. It is believed to be useful in removing toxins from the physical body
Jasper - Picasso
A form of chalcedony that exists in a range of subtle, muted opaque shades of grey and black, with hints of brown and cream, often with intricate black markings and patterns.
This gemstone is a type of metamorphic limestone, a natural multi-colour version, which also features sage green and russet shades, is also available.
It is thought to attract like-minded people who become loyal and trusted friends, as well as help to renew old friendships that have been lost. It is believed to encourage the wearer to enjoy life, and encourage creativity
Jasper - Picture
A form of chalcedony that exists in opaque shades of cream, beige and sandy browns, often with intricate patterns or ‘pictures’.
This gemstone is thought to encourage ecological awareness, bringing stability and balance.
Picture Jasper is believed to be a stone of proportion and harmony, and is thought to stimulate creative visualisation. It may help to bring hidden thoughts and feelings - grief, fear, guilt, envy, love, hope - to the surface, to be released.
It may stimulate the immune system and help treat disorders of the skin and kidney
Jasper - Poppy
A form of chalcedony that exists in rich vibrant shades of opaque orange and russet, often with darker markings.
This gemstone is also called brecciated or 'broken' Jasper.
It may help to encourage a positive outlook. It is thought to bring contentment and happiness when worn, and may enhance organization abilities. It is believed to encourage communication with animals and is thought to help with animal allergies specifically as well as other allergies in general. It may also increase physical endurance and ward off dehydration
Jasper - Red
A form of chalcedony that exists in a rich warm opaque red, often with paler or white inclusions.
An alternative birth stone for Aries.
This gemstone is thought to be very grounding; it may balance physical and emotional needs. It is thought to be both invigorating and calming and may improve the sense of smell. Said to protect travellers on their journey, and to protect us from witchcraft. It may also be good for controlling excessive bleeding and for digestive and stomach disorders
A type of spodumene, the gentle pink/lilac colouration is caused by manganese, and both transparent and opaque crystals are found.
It was named after George Frederick Kunz, the head jeweller at Tiffany’s, when this gemstone was discovered in Connecticut in 1902. It can be heat treated and irradiated to enhance the colour. Currently mined in North America, Canada and Sweden; exceptional quality stones are found in named mines in Brazil.
Kunzite is thought to calm and soothe in irritating and stressful situations and to help us understand and interact better with one another. Often called the ‘Woman’s Stone’ it is believed to help with all the psychological and physical changes that take place throughout life
Shades of 'splintery' blue/grey often with hints of orange.
Often translucent blue, reminiscent of sapphires, in higher quality stones. From the Greek word 'kyanos' meaning 'deep blue' it is found in many locations around the world; the most important include Brazil, Indian sub-continent, Africa, Russia, Austria and Switzerland, and the United States. Orange Kyanite has recently been discovered in Tanzania and large teal coloured crystals have also been found in Kenya. Nepal is widely regarded to be the finest source for blue Kyanite.
It is thought to be useful for meditation, to increase psychic abilities and intuition; to cut through illusion, reduce anger and stress. It is thought to treat the throat and brain, relieve pain, lower blood pressure, assist healing after infections, release excess weight and balance yin-yang energy
Translucent shades of green and grey, with iridescent flashes of blue, green and gold when moved.
An iridescent form of feldspar first found in the Labrador region of Canada. The flashes of green and gold colour or 'schiller' in this gemstone are usually called 'labradorescence'; native Canadian people once believed that this was the aurora borealis captured in the stone.
The ‘wizard’s stone’. It is believed to be a mystical and protective stone, forming a barrier to negative energies, taking us into another world or into other lives; thought to be both calming and energizing, it may impart strength and perseverance. It may help when working with others, and with changing situations. It is thought to reduce stress and assist restful sleep, and may encourage patience
Labradorite - Black
Muted shades of black and greys with brighter iridescent steel-blue flashes when moved.
An iridescent form of feldspar. This gemstone is only called Black Labradorite if it is mined in Canada, it is also called Larvikite or Norwegian Blue Granite when found in Norway and Scandinavia.
It is thought to help when working with others and with changing situations. It may relieve insecurity, reduce stress and assist restful sleep, and may encourage patience
Very bright opaque royal blue, with paler blue markings and gold (pyrite) flecks.
The best quality material is generally found in Afghanistan. Lapis from these mines was used in the mask of Tutankhamen. This gemstone has been used since prehistoric times in jewellery and during the middle ages was the source of ultramarine for blue paint. An alternative birth stone for September.
The stone of friendship, it may encourage the ability to communicate openly and to think rationally. It is thought to lift depression and give hope and self-confidence. It may aid psychic development and help cut through superficiality to find inner truth. It is believed to strengthen the mind and body
Shades of soft opaque lavender.
A mica-based gemstone, with high concentrations of Lithium; material with these colours is found mainly in Zimbabwe.
The mica crystals produce a subtle sparkle effect. It is a very soft gemstone (only 2.5 - 3.5 on the Mohs hardness scale) so is best worn as a pendant.
Thought to be one of the best mood stabilisers in the gemstone world, Lepidolite is believed to induce a sense of calm and tranquillity during times of stress and chaos. It is thought to balance the mind and spirit, especially when you need to cool off fiery emotions, allowing you to 'take a breath' before action. This gentle healing stone is believed to stimulate all the chakras, dissolving energy blocks keeping you from true happiness
Opaque creamy white with delicate pale brown/grey marbling.
Very porous (and rarely seen in its natural state), this gemstone is generally dyed in a range of bright colours, and to imitate Turquoise. It is found in many countries, including the USA, Europe, Africa and Brazil.
Valued by many Native Americans for hundreds of years, and used in jewellery and as currency. It is thought to bring deep peace when meditating or relaxing, and to encourage a positive attitude to life. It is thought to promote tolerance, allowing us to accept the self and to take others for who they are without the desire to change them
Banded shades of opaque bright green and black.
Malachite is found in Russia, Africa, Australia, Chile and the USA.
This gemstone is thought to be a powerful stone that is the guardian stone of travellers and is beneficial to pilots in particular. It is thought to absorb negative energies and pollutants, and help soak up radiation of all kinds.
It is said to be an adventurous stone and life will be lived more intensely as it encourages risk taking and change.
It is believed to raise the spirits and increase health, hope and happiness. It may attract prosperity and success in business
Opaque shades of yellow, brown, cream, kidney bean red and dark aubergine purple.
A type of jasper, this is a 'one-location' gemstone, named after the Mooka Creek area of Western Australia.
Mookaite is thought to be associated with all things sensual and with physical pleasure. It may encourage the relationship between the physical and the spiritual aspects of life. It is believed to encourage acceptance and affection for our physical body, and may elevate the spirits during physical activity
Pale translucent white, orange and grey, often with a white sheen or 'schiller'.
This gemstone is a type of orthoclase feldspar found largely in India. The birth stone for Gemini. An alternative birth stone for Cancer.
A very feminine stone, it may be good for menstrual problems, and is thought to encourage fertility. It is believed to ease childbirth, and thought to be emotionally balancing and nurturing
Soft translucent shades of peach, apricot and pink.
This gemstone is a type of beryl; also known as 'pink beryl', 'rose beryl' and 'pink emerald'. First discovered in 1910, it is named after the financier JP Morgan. High quality stone is found in the USA, Mozambique and Madagascar. The colour changes with each location and it is often heat-treated to remove yellow colouration and irradiated to improve its colour.
Morganite is thought to be the stone of Divine Love. It is believed to attract love and maintain it. It is thought to help release unhealthy emotional patterns and to help in developing trust. It is believed to bring a sense of joy and inner strength. It is used by crystal healers to counter stress and stress-related illness
Mother of Pearl
Gleaming shades of white, cream, gold and peacock black.
This organic gemstone is produced by large molluscs; the thick inner layer of their shells is composed of nacre or mother-of-pearl, and in many species this is highly pearlescent.
It is thought to be emotionally soothing. It is believed to attract money and wealth. It may soothe the emotions, aid sensitivity and relieve stress; it is often used as a talisman to protect new born babies
A form of naturally occurring volcanic glass, it is a deep, glossy black with a shiny lustre.
It is produced when felsic lava cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth, and can be found in any location which has experienced rhyolitic eruptions. It had been used since the Paleolithic era to make arrow heads, knives and vessels of all sorts.
Known as ‘the mirror’ this gemstone is believed to reveal all those aspects that we keep hidden from ourselves.
It is thought to be a powerful protective talisman, and to shield against, and help release negativity.
It is believed to be intensely grounding, and an excellent tool for helping to remove negative traits and behaviours
Obsidian - Gold Sheen
A form of naturally occurring volcanic glass, it is deep brown and displays a golden chatoyance when viewed in strong light, created from gas bubbles aligning across the layers during formation.
It is produced when felsic lava cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth, and can be found in any location which has experienced rhyolitic eruptions.
It is thought to be an excellent tool for revealing the heart of a problem or situation, and gives insight into the paths of action available. It is believed to dissolve negativity, and is particularly useful for clearing blockages of the Solar Plexus Chakra. It is thought to be useful for bringing out hidden talents and to manifest one’s true calling
Obsidian - Rainbow
A form of naturally occurring volcanic glass, it is usually black in colour, but displays rainbow colours when viewed in strong light. It is produced when felsic lava cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth, and can be found in any location which has experienced rhyolitic eruptions.
It is thought to be the stone of the gentle, sensitive and soft hearted people of the world.
It is believed to be useful when used to help soften and ease the effects of shock or fear. It is said to help protect the over sensitive against depression, to shield against negativity, and to bring love, joy and light into your life.
Obsidian - Snowflake
Opaque black background with 'white snowflakes'.
A naturally occurring volcanic glass that has small white radially clustered crystals of Cristobalite that give this mineral its name. It is found in Mexico and the USA. An alternative birth stone for Capricorn.
This gemstone is thought to be a stone with subtle male energies. It may encourage us to face responsibilities and the truth. It is believed to neutralise negative thoughts and bring insight and understanding. It is also thought to be good for the intestines, stomach and eye disorders
A beautiful subtle blend of spring green and creamy white, with occasional hints of lavender.
Mined predominantly in China, Peace Jade is not actually a type of Jade, but is a mixture of white Quartz, green Serpentine and lavender Stichtite.
A powerful stone which is believed to bring tranquillity, protection, peace and serenity
Many opaque shades with a glossy pearlescent sheen.
Naturally produced by freshwater and marine molluscs, most pearls are now 'cultured' or farmed, mainly in China, but also Japan, the South Seas and Australia; the Channel Islands also have a thriving pearl industry.
The birth stone for June.
This organic gemstone is thought to reduce irritability, focus the attention and encourage personal integrity.
It symbolises purity, charity, faith and innocence. It may encourage self-love and inner strength.
It is thought to aid digestive disorders and conditions that affect the soft organs of the body
Pale translucent olive green.
A type of olivine that occurs in only one colour. High quality gemstone material is found in China and the Kashmir region of Pakistan. It is also found in volcanic regions - notably Hawaii and the Canary Islands.
The birth stone for August and also for Leo.
It is thought to develop inner vision, counteract negativity and open the mind. Believed to be a good detoxifying stone, it may act as a general tonic for body and mind
Subtle shades of palest translucent watery green.
This gemstone is a member of the Quartz family, also known as Green Amethyst; most commercially available beads are created by heat and radiation treatment of purple Amethyst material. Naturally occurring Prasiolite from Brazil, Poland and Canada is highly prized.
It is believed to increase our sense of compassion and self-love, and thought to help with challenging relationships by bringing a sense of calm to those involved. It may encourage us to become more in tune with nature and to look inwards for self-discovery. It is thought to guard against negativity, in oneself and in the environment in general
A form of phyllosilicate that exists in soft translucent shades of green, sometimes with tints of lemon yellow, and often with black ‘inclusions’.
First discovered in South Africa and named in honour of Colonel Hendrick von Prehn, it is the first gemstone mineral to be named after a person. Gem quality deposits have been found in Africa, Australia and China.
Prehnite is said to be a stone of unconditional love. It may enhance our inner knowledge, and help when we need to recognise the truth. It is thought to work during meditation to access higher levels of awareness.
It is believed to be useful for the kidneys and bladder, shoulders, chest and lungs
Slightly dull ‘antique’ gold, often with gunmetal and orange markings.
Also called ‘Fool’s Gold’. This gemstone is found in North and South America and in Europe (especially in Spain where famous deposits of single cube-shaped crystals are found). It is used to create 'marcasite' jewellery. Electroplated 'coloured' pyrite is now also available.
Pyrite thought to be one of the most grounding stones, good for focus, practicality, logic and memory. It is thought to encourage improved circulation and is linked with the digestive system. It is associated with good communication and friendly exchange of words. It is believed to be an excellent energy shield, deflecting harm and danger
Crystal clear –often described as ‘ice white’.
A member of the quartz family, it is found almost everywhere on earth. Often called the ‘King of Gems’, it is also an alternative birth stone for April.
This gemstone is thought to act as a catalyst, increasing the powers and effects of other stones. It may generate energy, helping concentration and focus. It is believed to be good for the brain and good for the soul. It is thought to be an excellent channeller of healing. It is also thought to be good for mental disorders and psychological problems
Formed when Quartz Sandstone undergoes geological heat and pressure, this extremely hard opaque mineral is also known as Snow Quartz or White Quartz in its natural state. This gemstone is also known commercially as Chinese Jade; this opaque gemstone is often colour-fast dyed in a range of bright colours.
It is thought to provide support while we are learning life’s lessons, and may assist in our understanding of our emotional responses; it is believed to have a more feminine vibration. All types of quartz are thought to amplify the energy of other gemstones
Milky shades with vivid blue flashes or 'schiller' also known as ‘andularescence’.
Not a 'moonstone' at all, but rather an iridescent form of feldspar, sometimes known as light or white labradorite, especially when it is heavily marked with black crystal ‘inclusions’. High quality gemstone material is found in India, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Burma. Worked stones have been found dating back over 2000 years, in East Asian countries and from the area of the Roman Empire.
It is believed to be a stone that enhances our feelings and encourage fervent desires, eager expectation and heartfelt resolve. It is thought to hold within it the deep seated nature of feminine energy
Rich opaque shades of banded red and pink.
Argentina is an important source, where, in an abandoned Inca silver mine, the Rhodochrosite has formed as stalagmites. Indeed this gemstone is sometimes called ‘Inca Rose’. Apparently Incan belief was that Rhodochrosite was the blood of their former kings and queens, solidified into stone.
It may enhance compassion, attract soul mates and encourage spontaneous expression of feelings.
It is thought to de-stress and provide energy during extreme physical exertion. Encouraging a youthful outlook, it may be antidepressant and may speed up healing
A member of the pyroxene group of minerals; opaque shades of pink, often with striking black markings.
Gemstone quality material is mostly found in North America. An alternative birth stone for Scorpio.
This gemstone is thought to calm the mind, reduce confusion, improve memory and reduce stress.
It may promote confidence and self-esteem. It is believed to be helpful for hearing problems and use of the voice
Pretty translucent pale pink.
A member of the quartz family, the colour is formed by manganese impurities in the crystal. High quality material is famously mined in Madagascar. This gemstone is also called the ‘Venus Stone’. An alternative birth stone for January and also Taurus.
It is thought to promote unconditional love and affection and heal emotional pain and the wounds of neglect; it may also encourage tenderness and gentleness. It is believed to be beneficial for reducing trauma, improving fertility, relieving headaches and migraine
Rich translucent or 'included' red; the shade varies depending on the country of origin.
Burma is a key area for high quality stones, as is Tanzania in Africa. It is the only member of the corundum family not classified as a sapphire. The birth stone for July and also for Cancer/
Ruby is believed to be a stone of nobility and it is thought to encourage us to follow bliss. It may be a wonderful stone for the 1st chakra as it is thought to stimulate the basic instinct of, and for, survival. It is believed to strengthen both the physical and emotional heart.
Ruby is thought to bring love, confidence, loyalty, and courage. It is believed to promote stamina, vitality and strength. It may re-energize after exhaustion. It may also be good for balancing blood sugar levels. It may also help to reduce negative thought patterns
Clear quartz which has needle-like filaments of titanium dioxide which can appear as black, gold or red crystals running through it.
A member of the quartz family, most gemstone quality material is from Brazil and Madagascar.
This gemstone is thought to aid healing, ease bronchial problems and promote tissue regeneration. It is believed to rebalance the life force and dispel negativity. It is thought to be good for communicating with your higher self
Sandstone - Blue
Shades of opaque dark blue with metallic silvery sparkles.
Also called Blue Goldstone. A type of glass made from copper compounds, first made in the 17th century.
It is thought to be revitalising; it may act to encourage a positive attitude
Sandstone - Gold
Shades of rich orange/brown with coppery metallic sparkles.
Also called Goldstone. A type of glass made from copper compounds, first made in the 17th century
It is thought to be gently uplifting. It is believed to reduce tension in the stomach and solar plexus and protect the energy centre of the body
Available in a vast range of colours from ice-white to black, but traditionally blue.
The finest quality blue sapphires are found in Sri Lanka. Classified as any member of the corundum family that is not red in colour. The birth stone for September and also for Virgo.
This gemstone is thought to release mental tension, depression, unwanted thoughts and confusion. Sapphire may encourage balance within the body, aligning the physical, mental and spiritual planes, bringing serenity and peace of mind. Sapphire is also known as a ‘stone of prosperity’, and is believed to attract gifts of all kinds and fulfil dreams and desires. It is thought to be beneficial for blood disorders and to strengthen the vein walls. It may be used to improve cellular disorders and to calm overactive systems
Predominantly waxy opaque shades of olive green and brown.
It is found in Afghanistan, China, South Africa, Italy, England, New Zealand and the USA. It is also called New Jade, Bowenite and Oil Jade, depending on the colour.
According to legend, Romans used this gemstone as protection against sorcery and the dark arts. Vessels were made of Serpentine as they were said to shatter if they came into contact with poison, and so it was used to create drinking vessels. In the Middle Ages, it was used to store medicines, as it was thought to increase the healing powers of the remedy and to make it last longer. It is thought to be a guardian of vital energy, as well as a protector of the soul against invisible powers
Silver Leaf Jasper
A form of chalcedony that exists in opaque shaded patterns of grey-green, cream, brown and black.
This gemstone is thought to be a stone of abundance. It may be grounding and balancing and is believed to be protective
Translucent with grey or brown swirls of colour.
A member of the quartz family. The national stone for Scotland, natural Smokey Quartz or 'Cairngorm' is very rare. Most commercial material is clear quartz which has been irradiated to change its colour
This gemstone is thought to be a good healer for the abdominal region. It is believed to help absorb negative energies and may be a mild sedative and anti-depressant
Shades of opaque dark indigo denim blue with paler blue and white markings.
First discovered in Greenland in 1806, high quality material is found in Brazil and Ontario in Canada. Sodalite with paler blue colouring and a 'stone-washed denim' effect is also very popular. Natural ‘orange’ Sodalite is highly prized. An alternative birth stone for Sagittarius.
This gemstone is thought to clear the mind, help logical thought and reduce over-sensitive reactions. It is believed to be a stone of truth, and brings this to all communications. It is thought to help end arguments or other disagreements. It is believed to bring youthful vitality to the wearer. It is also thought to lower blood pressure and improve insomnia
Spinel - Black
Solid opaque black with a highly refractive surface, and first recognised as a separate gemstone in 1783.
This all natural black gem is a metamorphic mineral found in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Cambodia, and Thailand.
Smaller deposits of this rare gemstone have also been found in the USA, Africa, Brazil, Nepal and Australia. Rated 8 on the Mohs scale, it often occurs as water-worn pebbles.
Black Spinel is often believed to be a protective gemstone that repels negativity while at the same time triggering empowerment and inspiration to the bearer, but without overwhelming those around them. It is thought to help remove resentment and feelings of sadness, and allow us to find calmness. It is believed to help people achieve their life goals, by encouraging confidence, assertiveness, and perseverance. It is also thought to be very helpful in meditation
Translucent deep pink that really does look like crushed strawberries.
This gemstone is a member of the quartz family found mainly in Mexico and Africa. The colour is caused by iron oxide and Goethite crystals suspended in the Quartz.
It is thought to gently strengthen and balance connections between the physical body and the spiritual, it also brings to the surface the hidden causes of current problematic situations. It is believed to support the emotional body, helping to heal and release negative emotional patterns that no longer serve; it’s said it can lessen the restrictions you place upon yourself. Meditating with Strawberry Quartz is believed to stabilize unbalanced energies and bring guidance
Opaque shades of iridescent orange and peach, which flash gold in the sunlight.
An iridescent form of feldspar, also known as Heliolite, this gemstone is found in Norway and some locations in the USA (specifically Oregon).
It is thought to warm the heart and lift the spirit. It is believed to be a grounding stone that is thought to protect and boost the life force, and may be good for remembering dreams and meditation
Translucent shades of intense blue, purple or lavender blue, with darker colours and flashes of magenta pink present in higher quality material.
This gemstone is noted for its intense trichroism. This form of Zoisite was first discovered in 1967 and has been found only in the Meralani Hills area of northern Tanzania. Recently named as an alternative birth stone for December.
Tanzanite is thought to be an important communication stone, aiding the ability to speak the truth. It may promote compassion and calm an overactive mind. It is believed to raise consciousness during meditation and bring on a peaceful understanding of one's own heart
Tiger Eye - Blue
A member of the quartz family with opaque banded shades of blue, gold and yellow.
Also called Hawks Eye or Falcons Eye. The 'chatoyance' or 'cat's eye' effect is very noticeable in good quality material, found mainly in South Africa.
This gemstone is thought to deepen meditation and enable the truth in ourselves, others and situations to be more easily seen. It may improve perspective. It is believed to slow down all the body's systems
Tiger Eye - Golden
A member of the quartz family with shaded bands of opaque brown, caramel and yellow.
It is the 'chatoyance' or 'cat's eye' effect that gives this gemstone its common name. Most commercial material is mined in South Africa. An alternative birth stone for November and also for Leo.
This gemstone is thought to encourage strength, clarity and focus in life, enabling the accomplishment of our goals. It may increase self-confidence and perception, encouraging positive thinking. It may also beneficial for hypochondria and psychosomatic conditions. It is believed to improve the function of the liver, kidneys and bladder
Tiger Eye - Red
A member of the quartz family with opaque banded shades of rich brown, red and orange/gold.
The 'chatoyance' or 'cat's eye' effect gives this gemstone its name. Found mainly in South Africa.
This gemstone is thought to be a good stone for public speaking; it may encourage quick thinking, boost confidence and help in understanding the audience’s requirements. It may help with self-expression and self-knowledge.
It is believed to speed up a sluggish metabolism and revitalise the sex drive
Opaque bands of metallic black, mustard yellow and russet.
Also known as Hematite Jasper, this gemstone is a natural combination of Golden Tiger Eye, Red and Yellow Jasper, and Hematite. It is mined in South Africa and Western Australia.
All the qualities of each gemstone are rolled into one super crystal!
Generally translucent shades of mainly pinks, greens and blues, but found in a vast range of colours from clear ice white to black.
Some of the rarest gemstones on earth are in the tourmaline family; many of these are found in Brazil and Mozambique. An alternative birth stone for October.
In its many colours it is thought to offer a strong protective influence, enhancing sensitivity and comprehension by dispelling fear and negativity. It is thought to be a powerful healer of mental disorders, it may assist the troubled to find rest and strengthen the ability to meet with change and new challenges
Translucent or opaque shades of black or intensely deep blue.
It is found in a large number of locations, including Pakistan, Australia, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Africa and the USA. Also known as Schorl, it is an alternative birth stone for October.
This gemstone is thought to be very protective, and is believed to act as a shield to negativity. It is thought to encourage positive attitudes, good luck and happiness, regardless of the circumstances that you find yourself in
Various opaque shades of blue-green, often with black or brown markings known as 'matrix'.
High quality material is found in southern North America (Sleeping Beauty turquoise) and more traditionally, from Iran. Somewhat porous, this stone can discolour when subjected to light, oils, cosmetics, detergents and even some water. It is often treated with resin to improve colour and harden the surface. Colouring agents are also used at times. Chalk turquoise refers to a lower grade turquoise that is treated with both colour and resin to give the look of a high grade turquoise without the price. The birth stone for December and also for Sagittarius.
It is thought to be a powerful protector against environmental pollutants, especially background radiation. It may encourage wisdom and enhance creative expression, peace of mind, friendship and loyalty
Opaque shades of muted red, orange and green.
Named after the place where it was discovered in South Carolina in the USA, Unakite is a gemstone that combines the minerals of Quartz, Feldspar and Epidote. It is also found in South Africa.
It is believed to be a stone of vision, that can bring calm to environments and may be useful in recovering from major illness